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EDNS 151 -- Design 151

This guide contains links and search tips for the students taking EDNS 151.

General Tips for Citing

1) Figure out exactly what you are looking at – just because it comes from a website, doesn’t make it a website.  Ebooks, government reports and scholarly article can all look like websites at first glance

2) Be as detailed as possible – you are giving credit where due and helping your reader get to helpful sources

3) Save time for your group to proofread your whole report, including the citations! Check that the numbering and format are consistent throughout. 

4) You can use the citation help in Google Scholar and databases, but ALWAYS double check it for accuracy

5) Ask for help if you aren’t sure – contact your librarian, Brianna Buljung ( for help identifying sources and contact the Writing Center for help with brainstorming, organization, grammar and technical writing. 

6) Below are some examples of common types of sources, see the IEEE citation style manual for more details:

Examples in IEEE Style

Periodical (scholarly journal articles and magazines)

Basic: [1] J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year. [Online]. Available:

Example: [6] H. Eriksson and P. E. Danielsson, “Two problems on Boolean memories,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, vol. ED-11, no. 1, pp. 32–33, Jan. 1959.


  • If you get a source from a library database or Google Scholar, chances are it is a periodical
  • Include the article’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL at the end of your citation


Unpublished (Subject matter experts, stakeholder interviews, course materials)

Basic: [1] Personal interview, Date, Name of interviewee, their title or occupation, “Topic.” Conducted by: Your name

Examples: [1] Personal interview, February 2, 2020, Dr. John Smith, Professor of Chemistry, “Chemical composition of roadway materials.” Conducted by: Brianna Buljung

     [2] Personal interview, January 19, 2020, Sally Werner, Colorado Dept. of Transportation, “Roadkill in Colorado.” Conducted by: Emily Bongiovanni

Tip:  Give your professor as much information as possible so they know who you talked to



Basic: [1] J. K. Author. (year, month). Title. Company. City, State, Country. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file

Example: [4] Bureau of Meteorology, "Bureau of Meteorology: Measuring Rainfall in Australia," 2009. [Online]. Available: .


  • Check to make sure your item isn’t one of the other types before assuming it’s a website
  • Always include a link and the company or site name (Apple, U.S. Climate Data, Dept. of Energy, etc.)


Conference papers

Basic: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., (location of conference is optional), year, pp. xxx-xxx. [Online]. Available:

Example: [2] S. P. Bingulac, “On the compatibility of adaptive controllers,” in Proc. 4th Annu. Allerton Conf. Circuit and Systems Theory, New York, 1994, pp. 8–16.


  • You’ll find conference papers in Google Scholar and the databases too
  • Typically, a specific location on the paper, such as San Diego, CA, or the term proceedings are a giveaway that you are looking at a conference paper



Basic: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, year.

Example: [1] E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere,” Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Tech. Rep. TR-0200 (4230-46)-3, Nov. 1988. [Online]. Available:


  • Reports can come from government entities, companies and non-profits (such as the UN)
  • ALWAYS include the report number (such as TR-0200) this is very helpful information for your reader



Basic: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year. [Online]. Available:

Example: [1] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.


  • ALWAYS include the patent number, so your reader is sure to find the correct patent
  • If available, include a link for the patent at the end of your citation



Basic: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, (only U.S. State), Country: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. [Online]. Available:

Example: [2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.


  • Cite eBooks and books you find in Google Books as a book
  • If you are just looking at a single chapter, site it as part of the whole book (see basic above)