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Citing sources: Citation Styles

Introduce when and how to cite sources when you write a scholarly article; also introduce citation management software to organize your references and format your bibliography automatically.

Citation Style Overview

Typically, citation includes both of (1) an in-text citation and (2) a reference list at the end to provide full bibliographical information.

A bibliographic record typically includes:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of work (article, book chapter, paper)
  • Source (journal, book title, conference proceedings, patent number)
  • Format information if relevant--Web address, e-mail, personal communication, etc.--and date accessed by you
  • Page numbers used

Each discipline or a specific journal has one or more citation styles to format the in-text citation and reference list. See below for typical citation styles in various disciplines. Check with your professor or publication editor if they have a preferred style guide.

Citation Styles in Various Disciplines

Biology

Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style

Chemistry

American Chemical Society (ACS) Style

Geology

Suggestions to Authors (STA) style by United States Geological Survey (USGS)
Geology Society of America (GSA) style

Liberal Arts

Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychology Association (APA) Style

Mathematics

American Mathematics Society (AMS) Style

Physics

American Institute of Physics (AIP) style

Citation Styles in Various Disciplines

Computer Science

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society recommends Chicago Manual of Style

Economics

Chicago Manual of Style. See recommendations for Liberal Arts.

Engineering

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) recommend Chicago Manual of Style

Government Information

Metallurgy and Materials Science

See recommended styles for Chemistry or Engineering

Mining

See recommended styles for Engineering

Petroleum

American Association of Petroleum Geologist (AAPG) style
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) style

Overview of Scientific Style Guide